What is the function of the cornea?

The eye has the form of a hollow sphere. On the side facing outward in the wall of the eye is a transparent window, or cornea, which is shielded by the eyelids. Through it, light enters the eye.

If keratitis develops, the disease can end up scarring the cornea. This is especially true when dealing with ulcerative keratitis, in the course of which its epithelium is damaged. Scars can also appear when the cornea has been damaged by mechanical trauma (e.g., as a complication of foreign body removal), degeneration or dystrophy, but also as a result of viral or bacterial disease, as well as fungal and parasitic infection. Modern ophthalmology allows laser
removal of corneal scars
, removing the need for corneal transplants from patients.

Scar removal – what it is

With Photo Therapeutic Keratectomy (PTK), an excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy surgery, it is possible to remove corneal scars both centrally and peripherally located. Corneal scars cause disruption of light penetration into the eye, similar to a dirty camera lens.

Using a laser, corneal scars can be removed. For small scars, the laser immediately removes small particles from the entire clouded area. In the case of deeper and more extensive scarring, the upper layer of the cornea (epithelium) can be removed first, and then the proper opacified parts of the cornea can be removed as precisely as possible using a laser.

Thus, corneal scar removal surgery often proceeds in two stages: in the first stage, a phototherapeutic keratectomy is performed, primarily to reduce the opacity. After some of the scar tissue is removed, the cornea will relax over the next few months. This reduces its irregular curvature, which is often treated a few months later with a second laser surgery, wavefront-guided PRK (photorefractive keratotomy).

The effectiveness of the treatments always depends on the size and depth of the scars.

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